The refrigeration system is composed of 4 basic parts, namely compressor, condenser, throttling part and evaporator.

1. Compressor

The core component of the refrigeration system is the compressor.

The compressor is a device that sucks the evaporated refrigerant vapor from the evaporator and compresses it.

Its functions are as follows:

The steam is sucked out from the evaporator to maintain a certain evaporation pressure in the evaporator and at the same time maintain a certain evaporation temperature.

Compress the inhaled vapor, or increase the pressure of the vapor, so that the vapor is cooled and condensed into a liquid at a higher temperature, and the refrigerant can be reused;

It plays the role of transporting refrigerant in the refrigeration system.


1.1, Screw refrigeration compressor

Divided into single screw refrigeration compressor and twin screw refrigeration compressor.

The single-screw driving wheel is a slotted rotor, and the driven wheel is a star wheel.

The star wheel rotates in the slot while producing axial movement, thereby compressing the gas.

A twin screw is a pair of mutually meshing rotors with helical teeth with opposite rotations.

When the pair of meshing rotors rotate in the cylinder, the volume and position of the element between the female and male rotors and the cylinder wall follow the rotor.

The rotation changes periodically to achieve the purpose of suction, compression and exhaust.

  • Screw-type refrigeration compressors are also available in three types: open type, semi-closed type and fully closed type.

Refrigeration unit working cycle

  • The single-unit vapor compression refrigeration cycle system is shown in the figure below.

It consists of compressor, condenser, expansion valve and evaporator.

  • Throughout the cycle, the compressor plays a role in compressing and transporting refrigerant vapor, resulting in low pressure in the evaporator;

It is the heart of the entire system; the throttle valve throttles and reduces the pressure of the refrigerant and regulates it to enter the evaporator.

The flow rate of the refrigerant; the evaporator is a device that outputs cold energy, and the refrigerant absorbs the heat of the object to be cooled in the evaporator, so as to achieve the purpose of producing cold energy;

The condenser is a device that outputs heat, which absorbs from the evaporator.

The heat and the heat converted by the work consumed by the compressor are taken away by the cooling medium in the condenser.

According to the second law of thermodynamics, the work (electrical energy) consumed by the compressor plays a compensation role, so that the refrigerant continuously absorbs heat from the low-temperature object and releases heat to the high-temperature object, thereby completing the entire refrigeration cycle.

2. Centrifugal refrigeration compressor

It is composed of imported energy adjustment mechanism, impeller rotor, diffuser, volute, speed increaser, bearing and other components.

Its basic working principle is that the low-pressure vapor from the evaporator enters the suction port of the impeller through the suction chamber of the centrifugal refrigerator.

Due to the high-speed rotation of the impeller, under the action of centrifugal force, the gas between the blades is thrown out at a high speed.

As the impeller does work on the gas, the speed of the gas increases, and the pressure also increases.

3. Scroll refrigeration compressor

  • The scroll refrigeration compressor is a rotary refrigeration compressor that has been developed and put into practical use in the past ten years.

It is mainly composed of two scrolls that are offset by 180 degrees, one of which is a fixed scroll and the other is a rotating scroll.

They touch at several points and form a series of crescent-shaped volumes. .

  • The scroll compressor has the following characteristics:

»High efficiency:

the exhaust is continuous and one-way, the inhaled gas is small in harmful overheating, there is no clearance volume, no suction and exhaust valve, low resistance, small pressure difference between two adjacent chambers, and less gas leakage;

»Small torque change, small vibration and low noise;

»Simple structure, small size, light weight and high reliability.

High precision of processing equipment is required, and precision of self-aligning assembly technology is required, so it is technically difficult

4. Piston refrigeration compressor

There are three types: open, semi-closed, and fully closed.

The open type is mainly composed of body, piston assembly, connecting rod, crankshaft, air valve, cylinder liner and shaft seal.

The crankshaft of the open-type compressor needs to extend out of the body to connect with the motor, and there should be a shaft seal at the extended part of the crankshaft to prevent the refrigerant from leaking out, and to prevent external air from entering the refrigeration system.

The semi-hermetic compressor divides the body into two parts, which are compressed with bolts and nuts, and can be disassembled for maintenance.

The hermetic compressor seals the compressor and the motor as a whole in the casing, so it has better sealing performance than the semi-hermetic compressor.

However, once the compressor or motor fails, the casing must be sawed open before maintenance, so the maintenance is more troublesome.

The crankshaft of a hermetic compressor is generally placed vertically.

The lubrication of the moving parts of the compressor depends on the centrifugal force generated when the crankshaft rotates at a high speed.

For semi-hermetic and hermetic compressors, because the motor is in direct contact with the refrigerant and lubricating oil, higher requirements are placed on the cleanliness and dryness of the internal refrigeration system.

Due to impurities such as metal chips and sand particles in the system, It may damage the coil of the motor.

At the same time, there are also strict requirements on the water content.

The chemical reaction between the water and the refrigerant will produce acid, and it will also corrode the motor coil.

Comparison of compressors

Comparison of screw compressor and centrifugal compressor:

– The screw machine has few moving parts, so liquid and oil blows will not occur; the centrifuge has many moving parts and high speed;

– The screw compressor is not affected by the condensing pressure; for the centrifuge, when the ambient temperature rises, the condensing pressure rises, to a certain extent, it will cause the refrigerant to cut off and the compressor intermittently refrigerates, that is, “surging”.

– The screw compressor runs smoothly and has low noise. Sudden power failure has no effect on the machine; when the centrifuge is suddenly powered off, the high-speed rotating parts cannot be suddenly stopped. Oil must be supplied after the power failure. Insufficient lubrication may cause component damage.

– The energy adjustment of the screw machine can achieve 100%~10% stepless adjustment, the best part load performance, the power consumption is much lower than the centrifugal unit when running at part load;

the centrifuge can also be stepless within the range of 100%~10% Adjust, but surge is prone to occur when the load is lower than 40%, the efficiency drops quickly at part load, and it is easy to surge when the load is small;

2. Condenser

• The condenser is a heat exchange device.

After the high-pressure, superheated refrigerant vapor releases heat in the condenser, it condenses into a saturated liquid or a supercooled liquid.

This heat is taken away by media such as air or water.

The upper part of the condenser is equipped with an exhaust baffle to prevent the gas from directly impacting the heat exchange tube bundle at high speed, and at the same time, it can distribute the gas refrigerant flow reasonably, which greatly improves the heat exchange efficiency.

At the same time, there is a subcooler at the bottom of the condenser, which can effectively supercool the liquid and improve the circulation efficiency.

  • The medium used in the condenser to cool the refrigerant vapor and take away the heat released by condensation is called the coolant or cooling medium. Water as the coolant is called cooling water. The condensation process in the condenser is an equal pressure process, in which the refrigerant pressure is called the condensation pressure, and the corresponding saturation temperature is called the condensation temperature.

Horizontal shell and tube water-cooled condenser:

It consists of a cylinder, tube sheet, condenser tube, end cover and so on. Its main advantages are: compact structure, high heat transfer coefficient, low cooling water consumption, convenient operation and management, so almost all refrigeration units currently use this kind of condenser.

Air-cooled condenser:

It is composed of a fan, a motor, and a condensing coil. Because the dry bulb temperature changes more than the wet bulb temperature in a day, when the temperature drops, the exhaust pressure of the air-cooled unit also drops greatly, so the energy consumption of the unit is reduced more at part load.

Evaporative condenser

Working Principle:

It is actually a condenser that combines a water condenser and a cooling tower.

The high-pressure steam discharged from the compressor is discharged into the condensing coil.

The cooling water discharged from the water circulation system is sprayed on the outer surface of the coil through the nozzle.

At the same time, the air flows through the coil to evaporate a part of the cooling water, and the evaporated water vapor follows the air.

Take away the condensation heat discharged from the refrigerant vapor in the tube.

It is mainly affected by the environmental wet-bulb temperature. In the same environment, the wet-bulb temperature is often 6~10℃ lower than the dry-bulb temperature.

So it condenses with water

Compared with the air-cooled condenser, it reduces the energy consumption of the water pump and the chemical water treatment equipment.

Compared with the air-cooled condenser, it only needs a smaller tube heat transfer area to discharge the same heat, and the condensing pressure during operation is lower.

Its water consumption is only 1.5%~3% of the water-cooled condenser.

3. Throttle mechanism

  • The throttling mechanism can be an automatic or manual throttling valve (or expansion valve) or a capillary tube. The functions of the throttle structure are:

① The high-pressure (condensing pressure) liquid is transformed into (evaporating pressure) liquid, creating conditions for gasification at low temperature and low pressure.

②Adjust the liquid supply of the evaporator.

  • The evaporation pressure (evaporation pressure) in the evaporator is determined by many factors, which can be summarized as three factors:
  • ①The suction capacity of the compressor. If the suction capacity of the compressor increases, the evaporation pressure will inevitably decrease; on the contrary, when the suction capacity decreases, the evaporation pressure will increase.
  • ②The heat transfer capacity of the evaporator. When the heat introduced into the evaporator increases and the liquid vaporization speed increases, the pressure in the evaporator rises; conversely, when the heat introduced into the evaporator decreases, the evaporation pressure decreases.
  • ③The liquid supply capacity of the throttling structure. When the liquid supply is reduced, the pressure in the evaporator will drop; on the contrary, when the liquid supply is increased, the evaporation pressure will increase.
  • There are many factors that affect the suction capacity of the compressor, the heat transfer capacity of the evaporator and the liquid supply capacity of the throttling mechanism, and they affect each other. The pressure and temperature in the evaporator will be the result of balance under the action of many factors, and the change of any factor will make the evaporator establish a new equilibrium state at the new pressure and temperature.

Thermal expansion valve:

  • The thermal expansion valve adjusts the opening of the valve by the superheat of the refrigerant vapor at the outlet of the evaporator.

It not only plays the role of reducing pressure and throttling, but also can adjust the flow of refrigerant.

There are two types: internal balance and external balance.

The internally balanced thermal expansion valve is mainly composed of three parts: temperature sensing mechanism (temperature sensing bulb, capillary tube, diaphragm), actuator (diaphragm, push rod, valve core) and adjustment mechanism (adjusting rod, spring).

The difference between the externally balanced thermal expansion valve and the internally balanced type is that there is an external balance pipe in the lower cavity of the diaphragm, which is connected to the outlet of the evaporator.

In this way, the acting pressure of the lower cavity of the diaphragm is not the inlet pressure of the evaporator, but the influence of the flow resistance in the evaporator on the adjustment characteristics of the expansion valve is eliminated.

For large flow resistance, such as dry evaporator, air-conditioning unit with liquid separator, low-temperature unit, etc., an externally balanced thermal expansion valve should be used.

The choice of thermal expansion valve should be determined according to the refrigerant used, the evaporating temperature range, the type of evaporator and the size of the heat load. If the selection is too small, it cannot meet the cooling capacity requirements, and if the selection is too large, it will be difficult to debug.

Electronic expansion valve:

  • The electronic expansion valve is controlled by the electronic regulator of the microprocessor to improve the function of the expansion valve.

This kind of valve closes very tightly, and there is no need to add a solenoid valve on the liquid pipeline.

The saturation temperature (or pressure) and superheat in the evaporator can be measured by their respective sensors, and the two temperature differences are used as adjustment parameters.

  • Compared with the thermal expansion valve, the electronic expansion valve can reduce the superheat of the evaporator outlet, especially for the partial load operation, the compression work is reduced, and the operating cost is reduced, but the valve cost is high and the price is expensive.

Electric control valve:

  • The electric regulating valve drives the valve regulating mechanism through a motor, and the opening degree of the regulating valve is used to control the valve outlet pressure and adjust the liquid supply.


  • Capillary tubes are used as throttling mechanisms in household refrigerators, window air conditioners, and small dehumidifiers.

It is a small diameter (usually 0.5~2.5mm) copper tube with constant cross-section.

When the liquid refrigerant flows in the pipe, the pressure drop is generated by overcoming the frictional resistance of the pipe, which plays a throttling effect.

  • The capillary tube has simple structure, reliable operation and low price, but the process of refrigerant flowing in the tube is very complicated.

The flow rate and outlet pressure through the capillary tube mainly depend on the pressure before throttling, the degree of subcooling, the pipe diameter and the length.

The length and pipe diameter are initially determined by the method of diagrams, and then the actual length is determined through experiments.

  • Points to note when using capillary tubes:
  • The refrigeration system does not add a liquid reservoir, and strictly controls the refrigerant charge.

The system requires dry and clean. When multiple capillary tubes are used in parallel, a liquid separator should be added. The diameter of the capillary tubes should be uniform.

4. Evaporator

Flooded evaporator:

The liquid refrigerant enters the evaporator after passing through the throttling device, the liquid level in the evaporator is kept constant, and the heat exchange tube is immersed in the liquid refrigerant.

There is still a large amount of liquid in the gas-liquid mixture after heat absorption and evaporation, so the air outlet of the flooded evaporator is equipped with a suction baffle to reduce the liquid in the suction.

– The characteristics of the flooded evaporator:

the surface of the evaporator tube of the flooded evaporator is wetted by liquid, so the surface heat transfer coefficient is high, the K value is large, and the resistance of the refrigerant side is small. It is difficult to return oil, and because the shell is filled with refrigerant, the refrigerant charge is large.

Dry evaporator: The thermal expansion valve or electronic expansion valve directly controls the liquid refrigerant to enter the tube side of the evaporator.

The refrigerant completely turns into a gas in the tube, and the cooled medium flows outside the heat transfer tube.

– The characteristics of dry evaporator: part of the surface of the dry evaporator evaporator tube is in contact with the refrigerant gas, so the surface heat transfer coefficient is low, the K value is small, and the refrigerant side resistance is large. In this case, the oil return is convenient, and the refrigerant charge is small, which is only 1/2 to 1/3 of the full-liquid evaporator.

Air cooler:

Mechanically expand the copper tube and aluminum fin, the refrigerant liquid circulates in the copper tube, the refrigerant liquid exchanges heat with the surrounding air, and the cold energy exchanged is sent to the required place through the fan .


  • In the screw compressor or centrifugal compressor refrigeration system, because the compressor has a secondary air supplement function, the economizer cycle can be realized.

The working process is that after the first throttling of the high-pressure liquid refrigerant from the condenser, the flash gas produced enters the secondary suction port of the compressor for intermediate air supplement and cooling.

The remaining liquid is throttling again Enter the evaporator to evaporate.

After adding an economizer to the cycle, it will make the unit run more efficiently.

Gas-liquid separator

  • In Freon refrigeration equipment, especially the vertical position of the evaporator is higher than the compressor, in order to prevent liquid droplets from entering the compressor with the gas, a gas-liquid separator is installed on the suction pipe of the compressor.
  • The gas-liquid separator is usually used to change the gas flow rate and flow direction to separate the gas and liquid.

There are small holes in the U-shaped tube to bring the separated oil and liquid droplets back to the compressor through the small holes.

The diameter of the small holes is determined by the length of the return pipe and the cooling capacity of the compressor, so that the liquid entering the small holes can be All the gas in the return pipe is vaporized, which can prevent the compressor from generating liquid hammer and bring the oil back to the compressor.

Economizer-how to save energy

 The high-pressure liquid refrigerant enters the flash economizer through primary expansion.

After the refrigerant gas-liquid is separated in the economizer, the gaseous refrigerant is injected to the compressor, and the liquid refrigerant undergoes secondary expansion, the pressure is reduced to the evaporation pressure, and then enters the evaporator. ;

 The discharge of medium-pressure refrigerant vapor in the flash economizer reduces the enthalpy value of the refrigerant entering the evaporator and improves the efficiency of the refrigeration cycle.

Oil separator

  • In the exhaust of the compressor, some lubricating oil will inevitably be brought out.

This part of lubricating oil should be separated from the refrigerant so as not to be brought into the system and affect the normal operation of the refrigeration device.

The function of the oil separator is to separate the oil from the refrigerant on the one hand, and on the other hand to send the separated oil back to the compressor to ensure the safe and reliable operation of the compressor.

According to its working principle, the oil separator is divided into filter type, packing type, centrifugal type and washing type.

In Freon system, filter type or filler type is commonly used. The principle is: when the compressor exhaust enters the oil separator, the gas flow rate is reduced due to the large cross-sectional area of the cylinder, and the flow direction is changed at the same time, so that the oil is separated from the high-pressure gas and deposited on the bottom of the container.

When the oil level reaches a certain height, drain the oil back to the compressor.


The accumulator is used to store the liquid refrigerant from the condenser to adapt to the change in the amount of refrigerant required in the refrigeration system when the working conditions change, and to reduce the number of replenishment of refrigerant per year.

Filter drier

The solubility of water in freon is very small.

When the refrigeration system contains water, it will corrode metal materials, and when the evaporation temperature is lower than 0℃, it will cause ice blockage in the throttling device.

The filter drier is a combination of the dryer and the filter.

The desiccant in the dryer can be used to absorb moisture, and the filter is used to remove mechanical impurities such as metal swarf and oxide scale in the system.

The electromagnetic valve

The solenoid valve has only two positions, fully open or fully closed.

It is mostly used in the liquid pipeline before the expansion valve in refrigeration devices.

It is linked with the compressor.

When the compressor is started, the solenoid valve is opened to supply liquid, and when the compressor is stopped, it is shut off. Liquid supply pipeline.

In the refrigeration system with energy adjustment, the energy adjustment of the compressor is realized by cutting off or connecting the upper unloading pipeline.

Solenoid valves are divided into direct acting and indirect acting.

The principle of direct acting type is: when the solenoid valve coil is energized, the iron core is sucked up to open the valve. When the power is cut off, the magnetic force disappears and the iron core falls by its own weight and spring force to close the valve.

The working principle of indirect action is: when the coil is energized, magnetic force is generated to suck up the iron core, open the auxiliary valve, so that the pressure in the upper cavity of the piston is balanced by the auxiliary valve and the valve, and the piston opens under the action of the pressure difference.

When the coil is de-energized, the magnetic force disappears, and the iron core drops by its own weight to close the auxiliary valve.

The airflow forms an equal pressure on the piston up and down, and the valve is closed under the action of the spring force and its own weight.

Refrigeration unit working cycle

The single-unit vapor compression refrigeration cycle system is shown in the figure below.

It consists of compressor, condenser, expansion valve and evaporator.

Throughout the cycle, the compressor plays a role in compressing and transporting refrigerant vapor, resulting in low pressure in the evaporator; it is the heart of the entire system; the throttle valve acts as a throttling and pressure reduction effect on the refrigerant and regulates the flow of refrigerant into the evaporator.

The flow rate of the refrigerant; the evaporator is a device that outputs cold energy, and the refrigerant absorbs the heat of the object to be cooled in the evaporator, so as to achieve the purpose of producing cold energy; the condenser is a device that outputs heat, which is absorbed from the evaporator

The heat combined with the heat converted by the work consumed by the compressor is taken away by the cooling medium in the condenser.

According to the second law of thermodynamics, the work (electrical energy) consumed by the compressor plays a compensation role, so that the refrigerant continuously absorbs heat from the low-temperature object and releases heat to the high-temperature object, thereby completing the entire refrigeration cycle.

Exhaust line

The pipeline from the compressor to the condenser is called the exhaust pipeline.

The temperature of the refrigerant in this section of pipe is generally higher than that of the surrounding environment, so it dissipates heat to the outside, and the heat exchange of the exhaust pipe will not cause a change in performance, but only reduces the heat load in the condenser.

However, it has no harmful effect on the refrigeration coefficient and cooling capacity, so the exhaust pipe in the refrigeration system is generally not insulated.

Pressure drop is harmful, it increases the pressure ratio and specific work of the compressor, reduces the volumetric efficiency and the refrigeration coefficient;

The flow resistance in the exhaust pipe will cause the compressor discharge pressure (pressure at the end of compressor compression) to increase.

The increased pressure △p is used to overcome the pipeline resistance (as shown in Figure 2-11). It is not difficult to see that the flow resistance of the exhaust pipe increases the unit compression work of the cycle and the exhaust temperature rises.

The increase in the compressor discharge pressure and the decrease in the suction pressure will cause the actual mass flow of the compressor to decrease, resulting in a decrease in the refrigeration capacity of the refrigeration system.

The influence of non-condensable gas on the performance of refrigeration cycle

There is non-condensable gas in the system, which often accumulates in the upper part of the condenser because it cannot pass through the liquid seal of the condenser.

The presence of non-condensable gas will increase the pressure in the condenser, which will lead to an increase in compressor discharge pressure, an increase in specific work, a decrease in refrigeration coefficient, and a decrease in volumetric efficiency.

High pressure liquid pipeline

The liquid pipe from the condenser to the throttle valve is called the high-pressure liquid pipe.

If the temperature in the liquid tube is higher than the ambient temperature, heat is released to the environment, and the liquid in the tube is cooled, which is equivalent to the effect of subcooling before throttling, which increases the degree of liquid subcooling and the cooling capacity.

This is beneficial to the refrigeration cycle. The refrigeration capacity and refrigeration coefficient of the system are increased; on the contrary, when the temperature in the liquid pipe is lower than the ambient temperature, the liquid absorbs heat from the environment, reducing the superheat of the liquid, and making the refrigeration system cooling capacity and refrigeration

When the coefficient is reduced, some of the liquid may be vaporized, which may cause unstable operation of the expansion valve.

The flow resistance of the high-pressure liquid pipe does not affect the cooling capacity and the coefficient of refrigeration. However, for a cycle with a low degree of subcooling, the pressure drop caused by the flow resistance may vaporize part of the liquid, thereby affecting the operation of the expansion valve.

The flow resistance in the actual system will not produce a significant pressure drop, but when the high-pressure liquid pipe moves upwards, the pressure drop caused by the high pressure difference is quite significant, which should be fully considered in the design of the refrigeration system.

The excessive pressure drop of the liquid pipe will also reduce the working pressure difference of the expansion valve, resulting in a decrease in the liquid passing capacity of the expansion valve.

Liquid is too cold

  1. Re-cool the liquid refrigerant in front of the throttle valve to lower its temperature below the condensing temperature, which is called liquid subcooling.
  2. Usually the subcooling temperature is 3-5℃ lower than the condensation temperature under the same pressure.

After the liquid refrigerant is supercooled, the dryness of the throttling wet vapor is reduced, and the unit refrigeration capacity of the cycle increases.

Therefore, the use of liquid subcooling is always beneficial to improve the performance index of the cycle.

In addition, the use of liquid subcooling can also prevent the refrigerant liquid from vaporizing before the throttle mechanism and ensure the stable operation of the throttle mechanism.

The methods to achieve subcooling include: appropriately increasing the heat transfer area of the condenser so that part of the heat transfer area is used for subcooling; adding special subcooling equipment (subcooler).

The saturated liquid from the condenser is supercooled by the cooler, and then throttled by the expansion valve, and then enters the evaporator for vaporization and refrigeration. The rest of the loop is the same as the saturated loop.


The function of the economizer is to throttle the high-pressure liquid to an intermediate pressure.

After the throttling, a vapor-liquid mixture is generated.

A part of the liquid continues to be throttled to the evaporation pressure, and the other part of the gas enters the compression chamber of the compressor to be mixed with the original gas and compressed to the exhaust. pressure.

Low pressure liquid pipeline

The pipeline from the throttle valve to the evaporator is called the low-pressure liquid pipeline.

The temperature of the low-pressure liquid pipeline is usually lower than the ambient temperature, and generally has to absorb heat from the environment.

If the environment is a space to be cooled, this part of the heat absorption is both a useful cooling capacity;

otherwise, it is an ineffective cooling capacity, resulting in The refrigeration capacity and the refrigeration coefficient of the refrigeration system decrease.

The pressure drop of the flow resistance of the low-pressure liquid pipeline does not affect the refrigeration capacity and the refrigeration coefficient of the cycle (if the original evaporation temperature is still maintained), but it reduces the working pressure difference of the expansion valve.

Suction line

The effect of suction overheating on the system:

the pipeline from the evaporator to the compressor is the suction pipeline.

The temperature of the refrigerant in the suction pipeline is usually lower than the ambient temperature.

Even if the pipeline is well insulated, there will always be heat Into the tube, so that the inhalation is overheated.

The heat absorbed by this overheating is the ineffective cooling capacity.

This will cause the unit volume refrigeration capacity and refrigeration coefficient to decrease, the power consumption increases, and the exhaust temperature rises; the flow resistance in the suction pipe will cause the suction pressure (the pressure of the compressor to suck in the steam) to drop, due to the compressor suction pressure

Decrease results in an increase in specific volume and an increase in unit compression work, thereby reducing the refrigeration capacity per unit volume and the coefficient of refrigeration.

Therefore, in actual engineering, measures should be taken to minimize the influence of heat transfer in the suction pipe.

Whether the refrigeration coefficient of the cycle increases or not cannot be judged intuitively.

Analysis and calculations show that this is related to the type of refrigerant.

Considering the practical application, it is hoped that the compressor suction has a proper degree of superheat. The degree of superheat is generally 5°C.

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