Most common refrigerants used in chiller plants
Chiller plants use a variety of refrigerants, but water is by far the most common. It is used in nearly all chiller plants because it is inexpensive and easy to find. Water is also an excellent conductor of heat, making it ideal for chilling large quantities of water quickly.
R407C is a type of chiller refrigerant that is commonly used in air conditioning and refrigeration systems. This refrigerant is a blend of difluoromethane, pentafluoroethane, and hexafluoropropane. R407C has a slightly lower cooling capacity than R410A, but it is less expensive and has a lower global warming potential.
R404A is a non-ozone depleting HFC that has been commonly used as a replacement for CFCs and HCFCs in low and medium temperature applications. R404A has a global warming potential (GWP) of 3922, meaning it is 3,922 times more harmful to the atmosphere than carbon dioxide over a 100-year period. However, its GWP is significantly lower than that of other HFCs such as R410A (GWP = 2088). As such, R404A is being phased out under the Montreal Protocol and will be replaced by more environmentally friendly refrigerants such as hydrofluoroolefins (HFOs).
R410A is a hydrofluorocarbon (HFC) refrigerant that is commonly used in chillers. It has a low global warming potential (GWP) and does not contribute to ozone depletion. R410A is a blend of two HFCs, R32 and R125. It is often used as a replacement for ozone-depleting chlorofluorocarbon (CFC) refrigerants such as R-12 and R-22.
R22 is a chlorofluorocarbon (CFC) and was once the most common type of refrigerant. It is no longer produced in the United States but is still used in some older systems. R22 has a high global warming potential (GWP) and is being phased out under the Montreal Protocol.
R22 is a volatile, ozone-depleting refrigerant that has been used in HVACR applications for many years. Because of its high GWP, R22 is being phased out under the terms of the Montreal Protocol. The production of new R22 will cease in 2020, and it will be completely banned by 2030. Although R22 will still be available for use in existing systems, its price is expected to increase as supplies dwindle.
6. R134A HFC
R134A is a hydrofluorocarbon (HFC) refrigerant that was developed to replace R12 Freon in automotive air conditioning systems. It has since been adopted as a replacement for R22 Freon in many other applications, such as commercial and industrial cooling.
R134A is non-ozone depleting and has a relatively low global warming potential (GWP). However, it is a potent greenhouse gas in its own right, and its use is being phased out under the Montreal Protocol. As an HFC, R134A does not have the ozone depletion potential (ODP) of chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) or hydrochlorofluorocarbons (HCFCs), but it still contributes to climate change.
7. R744 CO2
R744 CO2 is a type of chiller refrigerant that is becoming increasingly popular due to its environmental friendliness. Unlike other types of refrigerants, R744 CO2 does not damage the ozone layer or contribute to global warming. In addition, R744 CO2 is not flammable, making it a safe choice for use in chillers. Although R744 CO2 may be more expensive than other types of refrigerant, its benefits make it a worthwhile investment.
8. R717 Ammonia
Ammonia, R717, is a colorless gas with a strong odor. It is commonly used as a refrigerant because it has a very low boiling point (-28°F/-33°C) and can be easily condensed into a liquid. Ammonia is also used as an industrial solvent and cleaning agent. It is corrosive to metals and reacts violently with water, so it must be handled carefully.
9. HCFC – Hydrochlorofluorocarbons
Hydrochlorofluorocarbons (HCFCs) are a group of man-made chemicals that are used in a variety of applications. They are most commonly used as refrigerants in air conditioners and chillers. HCFCs were introduced in the 1970s as a replacement for chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs), which were found to be damaging to the Earth’s ozone layer.
While HCFCs do not damage the ozone layer, they are potent greenhouse gases. As such, their use is being phased out under the Montreal Protocol, an international agreement to protect the ozone layer. In the United States, HCFC production is scheduled to end in 2030.
There are four main types of HCFCs: HCFC-22, HCFC-123, HCFC-141b, and HCFC-142b.
There are many different types of chiller refrigerants on the market today. The most common type is HFC, or hydrofluorocarbon. This type of refrigerant is safe for the environment and does not contribute to ozone depletion. HFCs are found in many different types of chillers, including air conditioners, freezers, and refrigerators. Other common types of chiller refrigerants include HCFCs, or hydrochlorofluorocarbons, and CFCs, or chlorofluorocarbons. HCFCs are being phased out because they contribute to ozone depletion. CFCs are also being phased out because they are harmful to the environment.
R448A is a non-ozone depleting, low global warming refrigerant that has been identified as a suitable replacement for R404A in new and retrofit commercial refrigeration applications. When used in combination with other best practices, R448A can help reduce your carbon footprint and meet corporate sustainability goals.
R449A is a hydrofluorocarbon refrigerant that was developed as a replacement for R134a in low and medium temperature applications. It has a Global Warming Potential of 1397 and an Atmospheric Lifetime of 14.6 years. R449A is non-ozone depleting and has a lower direct impact on the environment than HFCs with higher GWPs.
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